20th Century Timeline

1900 John Rylands Library, Manchester opened; Labour Party formed; 1 in 6 people were employed ‘in service’
1901 A census was held on Sunday 31 March; the population was 41.6 million; Queen Victoria died on 21st January 1901, aged 81. Her eldest son became Edward VII
1902 End of 2nd Boer War 31 May 1902; Newton Heath FC change their named to Manchester United
1903 Suffragettes formed – On 10th October 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst held a meeting at her house at 62 Nelson Street, Manchester and formed a new organisation, the Women’s Social and Political Union (WSPU); 1st manned aeroplane flight by the Wright Brothers;
1905 Albert Einstein publishes his Theory of Relativity
1907 Scout movement founded
1909 Old Age Pensions introduced by Lloyd George
1910 Edward VII dies his eldest son becomes George V; Girl Guides founded; Survey of Land Ownership in England and Wales; Pretoria Pit Disaster, Westhoughton; Manchester United move to Old Trafford
1911 A census was held on Sunday 2 April; population 42.1 million; 1911 census was boycotted by suffragettes; National Insurance Act gave sickness benefits; Unemployment benefit introduced; Mothers’ maiden name added to the GRO birth index
1912 RMS Titanic sinks; spouses surname added to the GRO marriage index; 1st cinema opens in Clevedon, Somerset
1913 Sufragette Emily Wilding Davison throws herself in front of the King’s horse at Derby; Suffragettes attack Manchester Art Gallery; Caerphilly mining disaster;
1914 World War 1 begins; Battle of Ypres; PALS Battalions formed 1915
1915 Lusitania sunk
1916 Battle of Verdun; Battle of Jutland; Battle of the Somme; Military Service Act – compulsory military conscription; Daylight saving time introduced; Zeppelin bombing raid killed 13 people in Bolton
1917 Russian Revolution; Battle of Passchendale; USA enters the war
1918 Men over 21 and women over 30 who were householders or wives of householders were allowed to vote; WW1 ends - Armistice Day 11 November
1919 Treaty of Versailles
1920 Oxford University admit women to degrees
1921 Sunday 19 June – census; population 44 million
1922 Irish Free State established; Four Courts burns down in Dublin – many records destroyed
1923 1st match played at the old Wembley Stadium between Bolton Wanderers and West Ham. Bolton won; Manchester City FC move to Maine Road
1926 John Logie Baird demonstrates television for the first time; General Strike; The future Elizabeth II born
1927 Adoption of Children Act; British Broadcasting Company founded
1928 Women over 21 years of age allowed to vote; Alexander Fleming discovers Penicillin
1929 Wall Street Crash in USA; Worldwide economic depression; Minimum age for marriage raised to 16; Workhouses abolished
1930 One in five in the UK were unemployed
1931 Sunday 26 April – census; population 46 million
1933 Hitler becomes Chancellor of Germany; refugees from Nazi Germany begin arriving in the UK
1934 Manchester Central Library opened
1936 George V dies, his eldest son becomes Edward VIII but is never crowned due to his relationship with Mrs Simpson; in December his brother becomes George VI; Spanish Civil War; The Jarrow March
1937 Basque children brought to England to escape danger; Sir Frank Whittle invents the jet engine
1938 First Kindertransport of Jewish children were evacuated from Nazi Germany
1939 Germany invades Poland - Britain and France declare war on Germany. Operation Pied Piper, the evacuation of women and children from major cities begins; compulsory Military National Service begins
1940 Battle of Britain; the Blitz; Dunkirk evacuations; Manchester region bombed
1941 No census was held due to the war; Japan bombs Pearl Harbour; America joins the war
1942 Battle of El Alamein; American soldiers based in Britain – known as GIs because ‘Government Issue’ written on their kit
1943 Dambuster Raids
1944 D-Day landings
1945 Victory in Europe (VE Day) – 8 May; Victory in Japan (VJ Day) 15 August; George Orwell wrote Animal Farm
1946 An extremely cold winter, lots of snow everywhere. The cold weather continued until March 1947
1947 Education now compulsory to 15 years of age
1948 National Health Service begins; Summer Olympics held in London – known as the Austerity Olympics; Caribbean migrants arrive at Tilbury aboard the SS Empire Windrush
1951 Sunday 8 April census; population 50.2 million; Festival of Britain
1952 Great Smog of London kills many people; George VI dies and his eldest daughter becomes Queen Elizabeth II; National identity cards abolished
1953 Coronation of Queen Elizabeth II; floods; Hillary and Tenzing climb Everest
1957 Windscale disaster;
1961 Sunday 23 April – census; population 52.8 million; Russian cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin becomes the first man in space
1962 Winter – the Big Freeze
1966 England win the World Cup
1969 Neil Armstrong becomes the first man to land on the moon
1971 Sunday 25 April – census; population 55.9 million; Decimalisation; All men and women aged 18 and over allowed to vote
1973 Britain and Ireland join the European Economic Community; Concorde crosses the Atlantic
1974 Local Government Act changed county boundaries – Greater Manchester formed
1975 Equal Pay Act and Sex Discrimination Act
1977 National Archives in Kew open
1981 Sunday 5 April – census; population 56.3 million; Thatcher (Conservative Party) becomes Britain’s first female Prime Minister; Riots across Britain
1982 Falklands War
1984 Miners Strike
1990 Poll Tax Riots against the introduction of the Community Charge Rate (known as the Poll Tax); 1st Gulf War
1991 Sunday 21 April – census; population 57.8 million; Time Berners Lee invents the World Wide Web
1993 European Union established
1994 Channel Tunnel opens
1997 Princess Diana dies
1999 Separate parliaments for Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland